Published 24 October, 2019


Organic farming is a method in which only natural products and mixtures with different types of environmentally respectable techniques are used. No chemicals are used: pesticides, herbicides or artificial fertilizers.

This type of crop is a process-oriented production system rather than the products themselves.

The initial investment will make the cost in the different production steps higher than in traditional methods, in return, you get a higher quality end product: tastier, nutritious, healthy and with greater edible durability, characteristics by which the end consumer is willing to make a higher economic outlay.

For a crop to be considered organic, it is imperative to use water, at least, without chlorine.

Hydroponic basil cultivation 


Mineral fertilizers (non-organic) are basically obtained through the combination of different raw elemental mineral salts, while organic fertilizers are made from algae extracts and residues of plant and animal matter. Hence the price difference between the two ranges: the cost in raw materials.

Another of the main differences is in the relationship between the quantity and quality of the final product. Mineral fertilizers usually increase crops by reducing quality. The opposite occurs, almost always, with organic fertilizers: higher quality, but lower production. Almost always, because today, we can say that it is a myth.

With the use of hydroponic systems, new sources of LED lighting and advanced techniques such as SOG, SCROG, LST, robotization and the use of big data, there has been a dramatic increase in quantity, maintaining quality or even increasing it; promoting, above all, the aromas and flavors.


Pesticides are another area that generally confuses people when it comes to organic crops. Organic does not mean you cannot use pesticides. There are a variety of organic pesticides to counteract everything from mosquitoes to dusty fungi that are not toxic and leave no residue that affects the smell or taste (bacteriological fight).

Organic pesticides are also safe due to short safety times. These “safety deadlines” refer to the time required after an application before people can consume the fruits safely.

There are organic pesticides that can also be applied up to days before or even on the same day of harvest, while with non-organic ones they are likely to have a safety period of days or even weeks, which increases the pre-harvest interval from weeks to months.

Organic pesticides are effective and safe, since they have completely disappeared from the plant at the time of consumption.


The main reason why organic matter is better is due to the increased bioavailability of nutrients. Organic nutrients are the livelihood most similar to what plants can find in nature. They are more easily absorbed by the plant, which ultimately results in greater bioavailability.

The reason for this is that when a plant grows in a natural environment, the plant elements and the remains of animal matter that break down to provide food, are transformed by fungi and beneficial soil microorganisms. Mineral nutrients are not as friendly with this environment and as a result you will get a soil that does not contain beneficial microorganisms or fungi, an extremely vital part during the growth cycle. In addition, organic farming encourages the growth of these beneficial microorganisms and fungi, which, in turn, metabolize raw elements in a form that is more easily absorbed by the plant.

There will be growers who will try to complement non-organic crops with beneficial microorganisms. However, the simple fact of the variation in the pH of the mineral nutrients is enough to kill them, which leaves them without additional beneficial microorganisms.


The use of beneficial microorganisms and fungi in an organic crop is also practically mandatory, although not essential. Substances such as mycorrhizae, earthworm humus and bat guano (among others), must be essential components when creating fertile soil.


Mycorrhizae is a beneficial type of fungus that grows in association with plant roots. Unlike most types of fungi, mycorrhizae is beneficial for plants. As a consequence, they are used as soil improvers and enhance growth. The mycorrhizae establish a symbiotic relationship with the roots of most plants. After entering the roots, they connect to each other by sending their filaments (also known as hyphae) and increase the depth of absorption. In return, plants provide glucose to mycorrhizae.


Humus is the organic material in the soil. It is not a form of substrate, but the composting of the decomposed remains of leaves, grass and other organic matter contained in the soil. It is highly nutritious and rich in minerals and microbes vital for healthy plant growth. It also has the property of retaining 80-90% of its own weight in moisture.

Raw organic matter attracts microorganisms that feed on it and break it down, turning it into humus. It can also be created artificially by using a home composting system, mixing with garden soil to provide a fertile bed.


Guano is the fecal matter of bats and is used as a fertilizer, providing essential nutrients and minerals throughout the life of plants. It is frequently found in caves and must age for long periods of time before it can be used.

Guano may be more expensive, but it is one of the most potent natural fertilizers given its high content of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. It also contains a large amount of micronutrients that drive plant growth.

It can be purchased in several different formats, either in liquid form, similar to tea, or in dry form, from powder, more suitable for working with the garden substrate.


To maximize the bioavailability of nutrients, vegan culture is a very good option … not to mention the optimal and best. As growers look for the most natural methods to grow cannabis, the tendency to work with these techniques is greater.

Vegan culture redefines simplicity and does not use animal products to maximize nutrient absorption. It creates it through the promotion of a habitat that is closest to nature in which fungi and beneficial microorganisms thrive freely.

The vegan crop revolves around the use of compost and compost teas to enrich the soil. Leftovers of grass, vegetables, cannabis leaves or any other green matter, will decompose over time, allowing a lot of compost to form a black mud at the bottom. As it decomposes, compost becomes home to a world of insects, larvae and fungi.

Proponents of vegan culture claim that the bioavailability of nutrients is 100%. Thanks to beneficial microorganisms and fungi, this massive increase in nutrient absorption results in greener leaves, denser buds, better aromas and a residue-free taste left by animal wastes in the typical organic crop. The simple fact of the change in this increase in nutrient absorption already makes it worth experiencing.


The answer is short and blunt: yes and without any doubt. At this point, the important thing here is to understand and plan the needs and possibilities of each one.

In short: mineral fertilizers are cheaper and act, but they are not as effective as organic ones. If what is sought is to produce commercial quantities of cannabis, organic production will be expensive and more difficult to implement; However, for a self-cultivator, organic is the way to enter.

Published 24 October, 2019


The EC is the ability of a compound to conduct electricity from the amount of mineral salts that are dissolved in it. That is why controlling EC (electro-conductivity) of water is a very important factor to consider for any grower or gardener.

Conductivity measurements are used in many industrial and environmental applications to control dissolved content in different liquids. They are also widely used in many industries, such as controlling the quality of drinking water supplies, boiler water, hospitals and all industries that depend on water quality.


Tap water contains a multitude of elements, mineral salts, heavy metals (lead, zinc, boron) and different chemicals such as chlorine; if the plumbing facilities are also old, it is very likely that it will also contain traces of accumulated lime or oxides and sediments. Chlorine is used to kill all kinds of microorganisms, fungi, bacteria, pathogens and prevents the appearance of mold in stagnant waters. Removing chlorine from water is as important as lowering EC.

The quality of the drinking water of the place to which we have access to the network is such a determining factor that many companies take into account a careful choice of the location chosen when building or opening a new headquarters. If companies and multinationals look so much on water quality, why not do all growers and gardeners?

Tap water


Depending on the concentration of mineral salts dissolved in the water, we will distinguish between soft and hard water. The main difference between what we call soft and hard water is that in the latter there is a high concentration of calcium ions (Ca2) and magnesium (Mg2) dissolved.

Soft water is called those whose measurements do not exceed a range of 70-150ppm while hard water is those whose range ranges from 320-420ppm.

Depending on the geographical area in which we are, we will have access to one type of water or another since not all places use the same techniques for water treatment. In addition, widespread rises in temperatures in summer seasons stimulate the proliferation and reproduction of fungi, parasites and microbes, causing chlorine doses in the drinking water network to also be higher during these dates.


There are different types of EC measuring instruments available in the market, with a wide range of prices, all of them valid and functional, depending on the decimals we want you to show us. There are also those that perform different functions, as well as measure pH and temperature (so-called combos) on a constant basis, mandatory for use through the different hydroponic techniques.

Bluelab Combo meter


The conductivity of water is measured within a certain distance, so although the one used in the SI is that of S (Siemens) they are usually expressed as S/cm or mS/cm.

We can also find other units of measurement such as ppm (part per million) and TDS (total dissolved solids). The relationship between conductivity and dissolved solids is given by the following equalities:

2 μS/cm = 1 PPM

1 PPM = 640 TDS


The goal is to start with a base water as pure as possible, better if it is 000ppm, in order to obtain the following benefits:

Know at all times which additives and in what quantities will be added.

We will increase the bioavailability of the plant causing greater efficiency of the fertilizers, making them can be absorbed optimally.

Protect, maintain and enhance the use of organic fertilizers, microbial life and beneficial microorganisms.

If we want to prepare a calcium and magnesium base water with an EC of 0.3-0.4, we will have greater control over the necessary amounts.

It allows us to identify in advance the possible symptoms of deficiencies and / or excess nutrients in our plants.

It helps us protect the roots by fortifying the immune system against possible pests and diseases.

It helps to stabilize pH.

Advance collection time and increase production.

Get a quality end product.


With GrowMax Water reverse osmosis system we obtain pure water, eliminating chlorine and helping lower EC by up to 95% the content of mineral salts, heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides and sediments. We also have the 000ppm range to create ultra pure water, ideal for small and medium growers who want to obtain clean and quality water.

Published 23 October, 2019


Chlorine (Cl) is an essential chemical element for many forms of life and it can’t be found in nature in its pure state, usually appears combined with other elements and metals.

It’s a toxic gas with an unpleasant odor that, depending on the degree of concentration, can cause different effects on the human body: from irritations in the eyes and throat, cough, pain and/or burning in the chest to pneumonia and death.


Chlorine has a large number of uses in industrial applications and processes, from disinfection and the creation of plastics to the manufacture of drugs, insecticides and dyes. It is used as a disinfectant for equipment, furniture, surgical equipment and hospital enclosures although its most widespread use is to eliminate bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses in drinking water supplies and swimming pools.

Swimming pool water


Water not only constitutes most of the weight of a plant and its fruits. In addition, it’s the main stream by which we can introduce without realizing it, substances to our plants that don’t suit them. By making them sick, reducing quantity and yield, decreasing the quality of crops and factors that directly affect such fundamental issues as the taste, aroma and nutritional properties of the fruits. That’s why almost all growers are aware of the importance of the quality of the water they will use in their crops.

Chlorine in water may also cause the appearance of different symptoms of deficiencies and/or excesses of some basic nutrients in the leaves, such as discoloration of older leaves by turning them more yellow or causing small spots to appear grey-brown.

Since chlorine kills all kinds of microbial life, it doesn’t make much sense to use beneficial microorganisms and/or organic fertilizers if we continue to use tap water without giving it any prior treatment. Chlorine does not discriminate against beneficial or malignant microbial life: it destroys them all.


Removing chlorine from tap water helps us better control the correct values within the appropriate pH ranges. Not all elements are assimilated with the same efficacy, so it is recommended to use a range of 6.0 to 7.0 since the intermediate value 6.5 (which is the neutral pH), is with which the nutritional elements can be absorbed broadly. Remember that pH values tend to increase as the plant grows. In growth and vegetative phase, we will start with values around 6.0 and increase them to values of 6.4-6.5 until their final phase.

It allows to increase the bioavailability of plants to obtain a greater and optimal absorption of nutrients at different stages of their life cycles.

We protect soil and organic fertilizers that contain beneficial microorganisms, as the latter help to enrich the substrate by better and more quickly transforming the assimilation of organic matter into soluble food for plants.


Published 17 October, 2019

We finish with the third and last part of the article in which we will see other determining factors to achieve our objective: a quality harvest.

Finally, we will see the methods of manicuring, drying, curing and conservation.


Manicuring is the process in which the stems and leaves of the buds are removed. We comment on the final part of the last article when it is the best time to cut our plants. Well, once we have made the momentous decision, we must choose the method of manicuring … and if we will do it with the plant material still fresh or already dried!

It is important that you look for a well ventilated place or adapt some method of air extraction, always with a carbon filter or similar, so that the strong odors that are going to be released do not accumulate. They can be very annoying and, if you have neighbors, you already know what this can mean … And even if they are a bit uncomfortable, the use of masks is not too much.


Pruning in green, with the vegetable matter still fresh, is the traditional method. It is a faster process and it is best to do it in a well ventilated place. The best thing to do in this way is that we can have the material ready for curing much sooner than if we let them dry before manicuring. What we usually do many growers when the time comes, is to get together with friends, we laugh, we put on gloves and, with a few scissors, to the mess. Nor is it too much for your compis to bring a work overalls or spare clothes and let them take a shower at the end: the smell can be so strong that even after having showered, the skin may still give off odor.

Scissors in action


This method may not be so used because it is slower and consists of cutting the plants by their main stem and letting them dry. Once the plants are dry, the manicuring work becomes easier and more comfortable, but more tedious, because if we want to leave some buds with top finishes, we will have to devote more time to the scissors. It is very fast by the time of harvest, but slower by the drying process.

You can remove the larger leaves and leave the rest; In this way we will achieve a more homogeneous drying and the buds will be more protected from light and air.


The use of trimmers has become very popular in recent years, making work easier and saving a lot of time. Taking into account the value for money, there are for all pockets (small, portable, industrial) and according to the method that is preferred (manual or automatic), all perfectly perform their function.

There are opposing opinions by the most sybarite growers about the use of these machines because they believe that a lot of resin is wasted … but what if instead of 4 seedlings, do you have 400 or 4000?

               Automatic trimmer                                                 Workstation trimmer


Surely drying is the process that most despairs almost all growers, especially those who are learning: a few months have passed since the beginning and the desire to make the first tasting increases day by day.

To follow an optimal drying process, we must also take into account certain parameters of light, ventilation, temperature and relative humidity, if we do not want all the work done to go to waste and ruin the harvest. Drying will determine the final aroma, taste and effect. Any factor that serves to accelerate the process will adversely affect our goal: a quality harvest.


The first step will be to enable a room for drying in which we can control the maximum parameters. Do not have more rooms or space? You can always recondition the room after having collected or purchased a closet, just for this process.


Avoid direct light. Light degrades the resin and hinders the development process of cannabinoids such as THC, CBD and CBN.

Temperature. The appropriate temperature range is between 15oC and 20oC. With higher temperatures the terpenes evaporate easily and quickly. In addition, if we have a high temperature, it is likely that the plants will be dry ahead of time and cause us a great loss of weight and volume.

Humidity. A suitable range for the relative environmental humidity of the room or closet should be between 60% -65%. If it is higher you must include an exhaust extractor and an intake extractor to renew the air, never use a dehumidifier, since any accelerating factor will adversely affect us in the final quality. If it is lower, try to raise it with damp rags, never use a humidifier.

Ventilation. It is highly recommended to renew the air in the dried room. This does not mean that you use fans, another accelerating factor. Use an inlet extractor to renew the air and if you are going to use a fan, do not let the air flow give directly to the plants, better to aim at the floor or ceiling!


Once we have the drying room ready and the optimal parameters as controlled as possible, it is time to lay the plants: either hanging them or in a dryer.

To mount a clothesline we can hang a few ropes from side to side or mount a folding clothesline. We will leave the flowers still on the branches and hang them upside down. Finding the right distance to avoid being in contact will provide us with a homogeneous drying, preventing mold from forming.

To use the dryer we must eliminate all the branches of the flowers and spread them on the surface at different levels. There are different shapes and sizes, but the essential thing here is that they are all made of perforated mesh fabric for the correct aeration of the buds. Even so, it is advisable to move them and turn them once a day.


                             Vertical drying mesh                          Stackable drying mesh

To know and check when the drying process has come to an end, take a branch and fold it. If this creaks means that the time has come and if it still does not, you should leave them a few more days.


Once we have all our flowers very dry and with the crispy branches, it is time to cure, the process in which the flowers lose the rest of the water, the ripening of the cannabinoids has just taken place and the chlorophyll breaks down. Chlorophyll is the pigment that gives plants the green color but that you should remove to avoid harmful residues that alter the original aroma and flavor.


The best way to suppress chlorophyll is by starting a good root cleaning before cutting. The reason for watering plants only with water during the last weeks is not only to eliminate possible remnants of fertilizers and supplements, but also to eliminate chlorophyll: when cutting the food supply to plants, they use chlorophyll as one of their Last food resources. Therefore, it is advisable to increase the amount of irrigation water and do it abundantly during the final root cleaning process.


The best method to begin to cure the buds is to keep them in wooden boxes, preferably untreated, of materials such as pine, cedar or oak. There are models on the market designed specifically for this purpose, such as FUM-BOX or 00BOX, with which you can also control humidity. Another effective method is that of a lifetime: in shoe boxes.


Airtight glass boats are also a very good option. Although, you will have to open them to aerate them during the first weeks so as not to let the moisture accumulate that the buds will still shed.


Self-regulating moisture envelopes have appeared on the market for a while. They are composed of a gel with the property of providing or storing the necessary moisture to maintain optimum conservation. Depending on the quantity to be stored we can find different sizes and when they have solidified it will mean that it is time to renew them. If you do not know what is the optimal point of conservation, the introduction of these envelopes in your boats or boxes, is a very good solution.


Boveda conservation envelopes


For the buds to be well cured (and hard as stones) they must be between 6 to 8 weeks (we can not talk about specific days, everything will depend on the conditions in which the cure has occurred), that is when it arrives the most anticipated moment, check the final result: the tasting.


Once we have the buds ready to consume, it’s time to preserve them well, without losing any of their properties.

For this, the first thing is to vacuum pack them in a bag, preferably opaque, so that it does not give them light, in any case.

The second, and that few get to do, is to keep them in a freezer once the vacuum bag is ready. In this way we ensure that our buds do not lose their properties, but in this way, we can keep them for a long time … months, years … it will depend on each one.

When it is time to take it out of the freezer for consumption, it will be enough to leave the bag about 6-8 hours outdoors before opening it and to be able to enjoy that preferred genetics again.


After following all these tips, you will surely get quality crops. If you also want to be good growers, here are the last ones:

  • Start by following a nutrient plan, write down all the parameters of the irrigation day (room conditions (temperature, humidity, ppm if you use CO2), temperature, EC and pH of the water, pH and EC of the substrate, etc.) Over time, you will acquire skills and knowledge with the you’ll be able to create your own tables. In addition, the experience gained will always be useful when you try other varieties.
  • Before entering CO2 into a room, make sure that you always have all the parameters checked continuously, without any power outages.
  • Work for a while the same genetics to learn about it, create the necessary annotations and thus correct the above mistakes. The first thing is the quality, you will have time to optimize the quantity.
  • Test different culture techniques and methods (SOG, SCROG, HST, LST). Do it on one or two floors (or trays) because if something doesn’t go well, you’ll always have the rest.
  • The best method of learning is trial and error. Try and test things, if you always do the same don’t expect to get different results (yes, don’t forget to write it all down, i.e. that information will be valuable to you later!)
  • Be patient, this is the last unbalanced factor!

Published 2 September, 2019

We continue with the second part of the previous article where we will see the rest of the determining factors to achieve our objective: a quality harvest.

We will focus on the importance of choosing a good substrate and characteristics to take into account, small strokes of the SUPER SOIL and its advantages, the types of pots, differences between organic and mineral fertilizers, in addition to the good use of supplements and beneficial microorganisms. Finally, we will reach the moment that all growers crave: the harvest.


Another important factor to consider for a quality crop is the type of substrate that we will choose. The vast majority of substrates available on the market are composed of mixtures of different peat and other elements such as coconut fiber, perlite and vermiculite that help retain moisture, as well as other compounds such as mycorrhizae, bat guano or earthworm humus as supplements. Although each brand has its own mix, or even more than one, all are fine for cannabis cultivation.


Depending on the amount of food it contains, we will talk about neutral lands (without food), light-mix (moderate quantity of food) and all-mix (well loaded with food). Everything will depend on the control in the food that we want to carry during the different phases of the crop.


A light-mix substrate can go very well for growth and then in flowering use the products of your liking. Or on the contrary, there are those who prefer to use as few products as possible and use an all-mix for the whole phase of the crop adding some additive for the increase phase.


Another characteristic in which the most advanced growers are fixed is in the aeration and sponginess of the substrate. This is very important since the roots need a medium with good oxygenation (hence the sponginess) and due to continuous irrigation, all substrates end up clumping to a greater or lesser extent, preventing the roots from expanding and fully developing.

The importance of a well aery substrate


If we are going to grow outdoors we have two options: cultivate in soil or in a pot. Doing so on the ground has the handicap of not being able to move the site plants if heavy rains or hail come, so we must worry about mounting a good roof or protection so that when this happens it does not harm our plants.

For the rest, we will only have to worry about the substrate that we want to use … although then, we also have the SUPER SOIL.



We won’t go too far with this concept (later we will create a more specific and detailed entry). Simply say that it is the term used to create a fertile substrate composed of several elements, which offers everything that cannabis plants need, at the exact moment, and without the need to control their pH or add additional nutrients. There are many, different and varied “recipes” (this is that one of the teacher or guru who has popularized it, Subcool the Dank) to create your SUPER SOIL but doing it well implies that we will need space (to make the mix) and a certain period of time until the mixture matures.

Let’s say we do not have one or the other (or none) it may be a very good option to go to one of the many nurseries that sell high quality composted land. This may be an intermediate option for those who want the benefits of SUPER SOIL, but who are not willing to go through the composting process.

If we really want to get a quality crop, we are not going to consider recycling or reusing the substrate, right?


Beyond the traditional plain black (or colored) plastic pots, there are other alternatives such as Air Pot or Smart Pot textiles.  

The most common drawbacks that occur with the use of traditional pots are the lack of drainage and the lack of oxygen in the roots. This last problem is solved with the arrival of these new models.


First of all, we have the Air Pot pots that are characterized by creating a regular root pruning process, since they are in continuous contact with the oxygen contained in the air. This contact creates oxidation at the tips of the roots (root necrosis) which at the same time causes the stimulation of new shoots at their tips.

Air Pot and Smart Pot pots


Also, the Smart Pot pots. They allow an optimal oxygenation of the roots, enhancing their stimulation during the whole life phase of the plant, so much, that they can even get out of the pots … and gently passing the hands we already have our Root pruning done.

Due to these two factors, they are especially recommended for the maintenance of mother plants where the oxygenation of the roots plays an indispensable role and the task of pruning the roots, a child’s play.


Textile pot where roots begin to stand out


The definition of compost or fertilizer according to the European Union is “material whose main function is to provide nutrients to plants.” And basically there are two types of compounds to feed plants: organic or biological and mineral or chemical.


Bio availability is the measure of nutrients that the plant can absorb. When mineral nutrients are used, electro-conductivity (EC) should be increased to much higher levels to compensate for the lack of bio availability. When mineral nutrients are used, only about 25% bio nutrient availability is obtained. With organic farming, bio availability is doubled.

It has been shown that feeding the plants with organic nutrients, in optimal conditions (which implies working with 000ppm water), can absorb up to 100% of nutrients and the main reason is the increase in bio availability.


The rising increase in the consumption of organic, ecological and bio products in the food sector in general, especially in agriculture and livestock farm, is increasingly tending to abandon the old methods to bet on new processes through technology that you can quickly see the increase in productivity, the reduction of harvest time, a reduced need for labor, the disappearance of the use of toxic chemicals and pesticides, the optimization of resources, and best of all, they help the ecosystem and respect environment.

This trend towards organic is also being reflected in the cannabis sector at different levels: from commercial production of large-scale companies in large infrastructure (such as industrial buildings), small and medium enterprises (family farms and cooperatives) to small grower who seeks to stock up for his own self consumption. And so much that its use is for the extraction of flowers, oils, CBD, terpenes, etc., all of them seek to obtain that extra quality in the final product that will make them move away from their competitors.

Organic nutrients are the closest forms of nutrients to which plants would be exposed in nature and can be more easily absorbed by the plant, which ultimately results in greater bio availability.


If we choose to use a range of mineral nutrition from the dozens of brands available for sale, we recommend you follow the fertilization plan that it suggests. All the tables are tested before going on the market although there is no reason to follow them to the letter. Moreover, in many of them, in the lower part in small, it is usually read that they are approximate quantities since the values given can vary according to the conditions of one crop or another, of the parameters with which we work and ultimately, the genetic variety.

Regardless of whether organic or mineral is used, there are many products and each one will use the one that suits you or likes it but to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients remember to always use water without chlorine.


The use of supplements and beneficial microorganisms are always highly recommended as long as we apply them correctly since misuse will reduce the quality of the final product.

If we want to maximize our harvest, it will be mandatory to introduce these types of supplements into the diet of the plants, usually rich in phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), at the beginning of the fourth or fifth week of flowering. The high concentration of these nutrients will provide us with a drastic increase in size and final production.

To make good use of these products it will be imperative to perform an intense and meticulous cleaning of roots, beginning the process, preferably, about 15-20 days (or even more) before cutting. In this way we will ensure that we do not leave unwanted debris or impurities that affect the appearance and, above all, the taste.


It’s time for the harvest after so many weeks of work and wait and if there is something that puts all the growers in disagreement, it’s this: the correct time to know when to cut.


The first relevant factor to obtain references and know the days needed to cut, we can extract it by consulting the seed bank from which we obtained them. Today, the vast majority of seed banks attach this data either in days (for example, 60-65) or in weeks (9-10). Data that may vary according to the weather and latitude that we may have in outdoor crops or according to indoor growing conditions. As these are not concrete values but rather ranges, we need some more relevant factor to make the transcendental decision.



Looking at pistils colors is another very relevant factor. The plant begins to be at its point of maturation when more than half of the pistils change from whitish to brown. This is the optimal moment where we will retain all the psychoactive properties of THC with very low levels in CBN. CBN is the cannabinoid substance that enhances the physical and narcotic effect. The more days we let the rest of the pistils change color and turn brown, the more potent this effect will be, while decreasing the levels and potency of THC.



Observing color of trichomes is another very relevant factor. We will need the use of a microscope to be able to look carefully at what colors they are. From the moment of their appearance they have a crystalline color and as their life cycle progresses, they become more whitish and milky tones until they catch amber tones, an unequivocal sign of maturation.


As in this life it never rains to everyone’s taste and everything is a matter of taste, for tastes, those of each cultivator! Even after looking at all these factors, there are many growers who also notice the aroma (not to be confused with the smell). During the flowering cycle the plants begin to give off their aromas and as they reach their final live cycle, they acquire different nuances.

In the next and last article, we will talk about drying, curing, conservation and some tips and tricks.

Published 5 July, 2019

To get a quality harvest, and regardless  the season of the year in which we are going to consider creating a crop, whether indoor or outdoor, it’s always good to know and take into account the parameters with which we are going to work. Identifying our strengths and weaknesses, both at the level of technical knowledge and knowing the variety and the place of cultivation, are not easy tasks and the only way to know them is through experience. Later will come time to improve, to try other techniques and methods. Quality cannabis is a cluster of small factors. What a few growers are raised from the beginning is with what quality of water they will work …


Periodic table of elements



Whether for gardens, fruits, vegetables, flowers or cannabis, all growers need water to irrigate. Depending on the area where we are, we will have a water quality or another, and the way we are going to treat it will make us to get an extra quality and more production from our harvest. Most growers usually use tap water, the one they have the most at hand and why not say it: the cheapest one. Water helps us to add fertilizers and nutrients, so using tap water is not a good tool to start working with, if we want to take it seriously.

Then ask yourself this question, if you do not drink tap water and you only drink it bottled, why give it to your plants? Do you remember the phrase “cheap is expensive”? Well, in the case of using tap water without a previous treatment, it can be very expensive. But why?

To begin with, we will avoid possible problems of deficiencies and excesses: as we do not know how many minerals and in what proportion they are, it will be difficult to find out if any of our plants shows bad signs and which ones they are. This stresses plants and the fact of finding out late what kind of lack or excess is, can cause real headaches, slow down the cycle of the natural phase of the plant and decrease the aroma, quantity and quality of the fruit.


Tap water contains hundreds of dissolved substances in different amounts, such as mineral salts, phosphates, sediments, heavy metals, remains of the same pipes, and as we know ALL the municipal waters contain chlorine.


Remember that it is a chemical element added by the human, essential for the supply of drinking water since it kills bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. At the same time, it is the number one enemy of the beneficial microorganisms present in the substrate, whose function is to keep the roots clean and healthy, which will negatively influence the absorption of nutrients and fertilizers at 100% and prevent the formation of a good root ball burning the roots. Remember that the formation of a good root ball is essential to have large flowers and obtain success when harvesting, as in cannabis plants occurs the same as in icebergs, we only see the exterior’s although the largest part is the one that is not seen and it’s the most important!


 Scheme of an entire iceberg


A high EC can also be a problem. EC or electro-conductivity is the measure of the amount of dissolved mineral salts contained in water. It also contains dissolved pollutants such as heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Boron, Arsenic, Mercury …) that can be toxic to your plants (just like for the human body).


Is the numerical value that expresses the concentration of hydrogen ions and measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity of water. We can measure acids through the concentration of hydrogen ions: strong acids have a high concentration of hydrogen ions and weak acids have a low concentration.

Plants, like people, have pH variations. If they do not have an adequate pH they will not have good health, being more exposed to the attack of fungi, viruses and unwanted insects. A recommended pH for the crop is between 6.5 and 7.5. We can achieve this by using a reverse osmosis unit, which will help us to stabilize the pH of the water, since the reverse osmosis water has a pH level of approximately 6.5 and not all the elements are absorbed in the same range.

Nutrient absorption values table


Calcium and magnesium are the other two main enemies to fight in the water. Although they are also nutrients for plants, they are found in water in the form of small crystals that are embedded in the roots and prevent nutrients and fertilizers from being absorbed.

Healthy roots can absorb 100% of the added nutrients. A high amount of mineral salts in your water can cause a saturation in the roots and can not absorb the necessary nutrients. Keep in mind that plants can reach up to 1.4 or up to 2.2 EC, depending on the genetics and stage of the crop. If for example the water we use has an EC of 1.0, we can only add nutrients up to 0.4 or 1.2 to reach the maximum levels. If on the contrary we start with a water of 0.1-0.2 or even 0.0 we can add many more nutrients to our plants.


Two other factors to take into account are the temperature (T / oC) and relative humidity (%). The higher the temperature, the greater need for irrigation. Depending on the combination of both parameters, some conditions or others that may affect the process, especially in transpiration and the assimilation of plant nutrients, will occur. The relationship between both parameters is called vapor pressure deficit or DPV (you can consult more information here).

 DPV table


Another key factor to have healthy and strong plants is irrigation. To begin with, we must choose which system we are going to use: manual, automatic or immersion (hydroponics will be discussed later, in an extended manner). There are also other systems on the market such as Auto Pot or similar.

The schedule in which we are going to water is another factor to consider. The best is water early in the day although some people prefer to do it at the last hour of the day. Depending on the conditions of the room and/or the place, we could expose ourselves to high levels of humidity during the night, since there is no light or heat to evaporate the water, which would lead us to take unnecessary risks of the appearance of fungi. It is advised to have a good ventilated room and the use of an air dehumidifier according to our needs.


Another of the main factors will be the choice of a good quality genetics and within the thousands of existing varieties to date, each grower has their preferences and knowledge but we advise those of a well-known bank with a good reputation.

The choice of the variety will also depend on the environment in which we are going to cultivate. For example, if we do it in a small indoor place, indica varieties may be a good option but if we do it in a large and spacious outdoor area, we may prefer a more sativa strain. If we take into account that outdoor is usually collected (as a general rule although there are always exceptions) between mid-September and the last of October, we will also have to take into account the area in which we live and its climatic conditions before these dates arrive.


 Freshly Germinated Sprout

In the next article we’ll continue talking about the importance choosing a good substrate, fertilizers, time to harvest, drying and curing.

Published 26 February, 2019

The growing medicinal and cosmetic cannabis market, as well as a whole new industry of products based on CBD, the main non-psychoactive cannabinoid of the marijuana plant, has revolutionized the standards of product quality, which is directly related to the quality of production methods. We will see below the importance of water quality, which is often not taken into account as it should be.

The control of variables

The cannabis grower is generally very jealous of the control of environmental variables, particularly in those environments where he can control them to the maximum, as in indoor growing. We refer to light, temperature, relative humidity … but, what about water?

When it comes to achieving the best possible product with the available means, any bulb is not worth it. That is what even the most inexperienced cultivator knows. Similarly, does not measure the temperature or humidity as it sits on their skin, nor does it add nutrients to the eye. The grower knows that in the rigorous attention to detail is the success of the crop.

This attention to detail, also applied to water, can mean the difference between an acceptable crop and an excellent one. Or between a crop that you can’t commercialize and one that meets the demanding health standards of the pharmaceutical industry. Do not forget that water is not only essential for any living being, but, in the case of our crops, is the main means by which plants acquire their nutrients.

We can rely to a certain extent on the running water with which we irrigate our plants. It is possible that we know the EC (electro conductivity) of the water with which we irrigate and, if it is not a hard water, surely we even think that its quality is sufficient for our irrigation.

We can have a similar confidence in other sources of water: rain, wells, ditches … There is a whole area of the world of cultivation in which this acceptance of minimums is reasonable: that of gardening. A chrysanthemum may appear equally lush and beautiful with waters of different qualities (as long as we do not go to very polluted waters). But when we are talking about products for medical use and human consumption, the standard pursued is the search for the highest possible quality.

The demanding grower is not satisfied with accepting the minimum conditions: his objective is the best conditions. That is the scale of the competition: if during your cultivation you have attended to every detail perfectly except the water, you will not be able to compete with whoever started with quality water.

What is quality water?

When we talk about crops for products that are going to be developed in the pharmacological industry or for human consumption there is only one possible answer: quality water is one that basically consists of H2O. Any water source contains elements that, if not eliminated conveniently, will be absorbed by our plants and from there they will pass to the products that are made with them, such as chlorine, fluorine, magnesium salts, calcium, potassium, sulfates or, even worse, heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, boron or arsenic, which are highly toxic not only for plants but also for humans.

Some of these elements, such as calcium and magnesium, are good for our plants, but at what concentrations? When we apply a program of nutrients to our crop, we will save many headaches if we control what is in the irrigation water. That is, starting with a low EC, we can add the calcium and magnesium that our plants need in the proper proportions, and the corresponding levels of nutrients according to our program.

A water free of unwanted elements is the ideal substrate to feed our plants.

Water in medicinal cannabis

Cannabis is a natural accumulator of substances, to the point that it is used to clean floors of toxic and radioactive elements in a process known as phytoremediation. Recent examples are in Taranto, Italy, where a variety of hemp is being used to decontaminate nickel, lead and other substances. Cannabis was also used for the regeneration of soils after the fateful Chernobyl accident.

Literally a cannabis plant absorbs everything within its reach, hence the importance not only of the development of specific fertilizers for cannabis, but of the need to irrigate and administer the nutrients with quality water, either processed by filtration or by reverse osmosis, according to their EC levels. We do not exaggerate if we affirm what if we irrigate with any water, our cannabis plants will absorb anything. In fact, the elements that are absorbed by the roots will affect not only the quality, but the specific composition of cannabinoids and terpenes, which is a very sensitive issue in the production of medicinal products.

Thus, cannabis, especially for medicinal use, must be treated with the safest substances possible. In this sense, to achieve the best result we have to use suitable fertilizers for the variety that we are cultivating and control the environmental variables. But all this care loses its meaning if we do not start with quality water. The grower must always keep the final consumer in mind and must guarantee patient safety above anything else.

Published 20 November, 2018

With autumn comes the time of indoor growing, and many cannabis growers take advantage to review and update your equipment, or start a new crop, always with views to improve the quality of their crops. In recent years and at present, we are witnessing an increase in both the supply and the quality of the means for cultivation. Technologies are evolving, fertilizers and additives are being perfected, and techniques are refined.

But it also improves our knowledge of all the processes that participate in the growth of a plant, which allows us to make the most of our resources to obtain the best possible result: light, humidity and temperature control, nutrition, water quality irrigation … There is practically no aspect that the good grower of cannabis does not care with zeal, but perhaps it is the water issue, of which more determining factors for an optimal harvest depend.

How should we treat water in our crop?

The water with which we irrigate our plants and apply our nutrients will determine a huge percentage of the final quality of the buds, and not only in terms of size, aroma and properties, but, and this is very important in any product for human consumption, of health. That is, if we want to achieve a healthy and quality end product, we must pay close attention to the quality of irrigation water.

Watering or not watering: that is not the issue

No grower who addresses his next indoor crop will consider whether or not to light his plants, but how: will he use more versatile equipment that he can use throughout the development of the crop, or will he use a more refined result? different equipment adapted to each phase? Will you seek maximum energy savings, or will you risk an extra cost by betting on a higher result?

Why not apply the same principle to water? Since the question is not whether we should irrigate or not, the demanding grower must ask himself: how am I going to treat the irrigation water?

Of course, to answer this question, first we must respond to the following: What is in my irrigation water?, Why should I treat the water with which I irrigate my plants? The answer depends fundamentally on the origin of that water.

The ideal situation would be that, knowing precisely the water composition of our irrigation source, we would have verified that it has an acceptable quality in terms of electroconductivity (EC), pH, oxygenation, amount of dissolved salts, etc., to apply directly to our plants, without the need to treat it. But this situation is extremely rare.

Water comes from three main sources: rain, groundwater and the water network.

The rain

The rainwater is, generally, a soft water and, freshly fallen, very oxygenated, and therefore ideal for irrigation. However, you should keep in mind that their best properties are ephemeral and disappear as soon as it is stored.

It contains more CO2 and nitrogen than common water, which makes it slightly acidic. These, along with the oxygen, pass to the plants through the newly fallen rain, which gives them a boost of growth.

But be careful: depending on the place where you collect the rainwater, it may contain different traces of elements. If you live in a big city, very likely the water you pick up directly from the rain contains pollutants washed out of the atmosphere. In certain regions, too, there are often very hot weather conditions that contaminate rainwater and load it with undesirable elements. One option to sediment these elements is to let them rest, but in this way you will also eliminate the properties that make it particularly special.

When we talk about indoor crops, direct rain, whose saturation makes it penetrate much better in the soil than artificial irrigation, is not an option. Storage as an alternative has its counterparts: water loses its properties and, if we are not careful, it can stagnate or reach unfavorable temperatures for irrigation.


Using water directly from a well without knowing the salts it carries is reckless. Groundwater can have very different compositions, present solids that alter its pH, as well as contaminants. Yes, because of the location of your crop you have no alternative, you must order an analysis. Depending on the characteristics of the aquifer, it will be advisable to repeat the analysis every so often.

Running water from the tap

Although the tap water that flows out of the tap is previously filtered, it may contain, in hard water regions, a large amount of dissolved salts that make its EC and pH values not appropriate for the plants. Old plumbing installations can also add accumulated lime and other unwanted elements to running water. In addition, tap water is commonly treated with chlorine, as a sanitary measure necessary to prevent the proliferation of viruses and bacteria.

As we already told you in this entry, although chlorine is essential in the running water system to ensure that it reaches your tap completely sterile, from that point on it can become a great enemy of the grower, especially the organic grower. Chlorine will not distinguish between beneficial and harmful organisms and will eliminate beneficial fungi from organic fertilizers and crop stimulators. In some areas of the world fluorine is also added to water. Fluorine can inhibit photosynthesis and phosphorus absorption, producing damage to the leaves.

Heavy metals

As we can see, the three main sources of water have a common disadvantage: the possibility of presenting unwanted elements. Although tap water is safe in terms of sanitation, can, like groundwater and rainwater, runs the risk of being contaminated with heavy metals.

Cannabis is a biological accumulator: everything you give it will incorporate it into its biomass and, if it can not transform it through its common biological processes, it will accumulate it. Bioaccumulation It is a characteristic of heavy metals. These can reach the plant through its cultivation in contaminated soils, the use of poor quality fertilizers … or the water!

The term “heavy metals” refers to a set of metals and some semimetal that, without being essential, they have a toxic effect on living matter. Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) among others, can accumulate in the plant and pass to the human being through its consumption.

Heavy metals can inhibit plant growth, structural damage and oxidative stress, in addition to poor functions in their physiological and biochemical activities, affecting the photosynthesis and the water potential of the leaves among others.


Although the plant has mechanisms of resistance against heavy metals, its exposure to them is always a risk, especially considering the possibility of its presence in products intended for human consumption. The effects of heavy metals in the human beings cover a wide spectrum, from headaches to nausea, passing through metabolic insufficiency and in cases of prolonged or extreme exposure, cancer.


The best treatment is, without doubt, prevention. Watering our plants with water whose composition we do not know is not very different from using cheap fertilizers that have no guarantees.

So, it’s not about whether you need to treat the irrigation water or not. It is about what water treatment system you need: Filtration or Reverse Osmosis.


“Professional growers say that quality water should be used”